Monday, March 17, 2014

The Net News



The Net News


Everyone is cordially invited to visit my new website

Christian’s Thoughts by Alice Alexandra–Sofia   



The Website completed formation of The Net, which is intended to propagate knowledge of Christianity and to promote science created on the basis of the Christian (Orthodox) theology.


As of today, The Net offers the following information:

Christian’s Thoughts by Alice Alexandra–Sofiahttp://alicealexandrasofia.us  weekly post, Page Current Post
Sunday’s Thoughts by Alice Alexandra–Sofiahttp://alicealexandrasofia.net/ – weekly posts for 2008 through March, 2014, also Folders with works concerning the foundation of Christian Teachings, the heathenism, heathen philosophy, political theology, ecumenism, and systems logic
Systems Logic by Alice–Sofia  http://systemslogic-by-alicesofia.net/ – offers for download the following files  (Pages LIBRARY and LIBRARY_2):

Page LIBRARY

SYSTEMS LOGIC:
1. Introduction to Systems Logic

APPLICATIONS OF THE SYSTEMS LOGIC:
1. Current Methods of Cyber Defense
2. Cyber Defense and Systems Logic – Blog Posts for 2012–2014
3. Concept of Civilization

PHILOSOPHY OF THE ABSOLUTE GOOD:
1. Introduction to Philosophy of the Absolute Good


Page LIBRARY_2
The World and The War. I. Introduction. Ecumenism. Materialism.

Cyber Defense & Systems Logic   offers the posts, which I grouped as following:
I. Cyber Domain:
1. Cyber Defense and Systems Logic (Post #1, April 16, 2012)
2. Google, Chromebook, and the Net of the Future (Post #2, May 30, 2012)
3. Attribution and Cell 911 (Post #4, July 11, 2012)
4. Cyber Weapon and Other Details of the Cyber Front (Post #6, September 12, 2012)
5. The Anniversary: thank you, Google! (Post #9, April 17, 2013)
6. The Logic, Black Swan, the Unknown, and the Future of the Internet (Post #10, June 1, 2013)
7. Systems Logic: Feasibility Studies (Post #13, October 31, 2013)

II. Politics:
1. Jerusalem, the U.S., and Israel (Post #3, June 5, 2012)
2. Iran: political system – a possible future (Post #5, August 11, 2012)
3. Mr. President, Syria, World War III, and the Future (Post #11, September 2, 2013)

III. All The Others:
1. Predictive Intelligence, Blame Games, Zen, and the Unknown Systems (Post #7, October 17, 2012)
2. L’Aquila Earthquake, Fukushima Nuclear Catastrophe, Trial of Science, and Survival of Mankind (Post #8, December 11, 2012)
3. Saving of Civilization for the Apocalypse Survivors and DNA as Mass Data Storage (Post #12, October 7, 2013)
4. Galaxy Inside–out and the Light of Creation (Post #1_2014, January 21, 2014).

The file with all Blog posts may be downloaded from website  

As it is always with my works concerning teachings of my God – Lord Jesus Christ, the files published @ The Net are free for all Visitors and Readers and Friends to download, copy, transmit, translate, and store by any means available.


Contact: email – alice_sofia@fastmail.fm

 Alice–Sofia




Tuesday, January 21, 2014

Galaxy Inside–out and the Light of Creation




Post #1_2014. Galaxy Inside–out and the Light of Creation

In the end of December 2013, @ my website Sunday’s Thoughts by Alice–Alexandra–Sofia [http: // alicealexandrasofia.net /], I posted The Light (excerpt follows*1*).
In The Light, I argued that the commonly accepted translation of the Septuagint text και διεχωρισεν ο Θεος ανα μεσον του φωτος, και ανα μεσον του σκοτους {Genesis 1:4} as “and God separated (or divided) the light from darkness” [in: 1, 2, 3, 4] does not take into consideration the meanings of all words. Therefore, another translation might be accepted:  “and God established the space in the depth of the midst of the light and in the depth of the midst of the darkness.”
It means that the Septuagint conveys the history of creation of the totality – Κοσμος, or the universe, beginning with coming of the light and establishment of the space within the light within which the Earth was created {Genesis 1}.
Yesterday, I read the article Milky Way Galaxy Formed From the Inside Out? By Kimberly Ruble, January 20, 2014 [5]. Then I have found publication of The Register [6] (my preferred source of cyber–news, cyber–humor, and even cyber–gossips) with the link to the source [7], and other communications [e.g., 8] devoted to the same event.
The one might assume that to be formed “inside out” and “expanding out of the center” [5, 6, 7, 8], means that it should be some working space established for the formatting work, probably, similarly to preparation of the soil, into which the seed of a tree – in this case, the core/code of a new galaxy – have to be planted, so it would grow and accommodate and sustain life of other forms of life
As other research show, the Κοσμος/space still contains the remnants of the primeval light as well as the dark matter [[of which the Septuagint {Genesis 1:2} says: Η δε γη ην αορατος και ακατασκευαστος – unseen, imperceptible, and unprepared matter/earth]], the raw supply for creation of the many worlds within a space; one of such worlds is our planet Earth.
Of course, it is quite difficult to comprehend the laws of creation, nature, and other parameters of the immeasurable and inaccessible for human senses galactic spaces: the human intelligence/reason is in its best, when it is dealing with the limited time–space–complexity settings accommodating existence, survival, values, etc., in which our life begins and comes to the end.
However, in this starry finding of the researchers handling the European Space Agency's Gaia-ESO project, I see one more of σημεια των καιρων {Luke 12:54-57} – the signs of the times: the time came for liberation of the human reason.
The human reason should free itself from the slavery: it should demolish cages set by three kinds of limits, which keep the mind within the range of allowable censored (or self–censored) thoughts and studies, and because of which misery of daily existence in poverty, hunger, ignorance, and hopelessness are the unavoidable actuality of the majority of earth population.
These limits are consequences of false knowledge and fear of persecution and agonizing death, which historically were the destiny of those who attempted to think freely; they are inheritance of the heathen civilizations; they have been absorbed with the heathen philosophy based on the Orphic doctrine*2*, and they were created by those who attempted to free the sciences from the Inquisition’s control, as well as from the figments of imagination of philosophizing diviners: the religious, philosophical, and political utopias, which are fantasies and lies presented as truth.
These limits are
1/ Aristotelian logic of simplification, derivatives of which – materialistic/Marxist dialectics and modeling*3* – still are used as the main tools of the contemporary sciences
2/ institutionalized control of human thought initiated through the papal Inquisition*4*, which ultimately triggered separation of the sciences from their foundation – philosophy, and philosophy from its foundation – theology, simultaneously setting free: the sciences – from logic and from focusing on the primary purposes– the good of men, and the researchers who make these sciences – from wisdom, rational reasoning, and human values
3/ self–imposed limits invented by the researchers in the search of freedom from any limits. That happened when the researchers following Francis Bacon*5* and other “free thinkers” decided to banish Christian theology, which was misinterpreted and ultimately, hijacked by the papal inquisitors – “guardians of the small undeveloped souls” of the sheep who must follow only one “universal shepherd and leader” – the Prefect of the Inquisition. Prefect of the Inquisition (that still exists under another name as a department of the papal office) is the pope with his magisterium/producer and censor of knowledge that the scientists are encouraged to explore.
This (third) group of limits was established in memory of many brilliant scientists and thinkers, including Giordano Bruno. Giordano Bruno came to the discovery of other worlds (while following Aristotle, the article of papal faith holds that only one world – earth was created as the center of cosmos) and was burned alive at stake (as many others) because of the accusations that were reserved for all free thinkers: heresy and witchcraft, which automatically triggered capital punishment*6*.
The time came to discards all these limits, especially, the third group, and to re–read the Septuagint and the Books of the New Testament, so comprehension of the law of God and the simple words of the Divine Truth
a/ return us to the senses, to the traditional human values
b/ restore the ability to discern the good and the evil
c/ give understanding that a human being is the greatest value of the world.
Then, the research and studies should be re–oriented from the sciences of death to the sciences of life and survival even within our collapsing world; they should pursue the good of a person: they should be focused on human needs, on establishment of the peace on the entire planet, on prosperity of all people and all societies, on the greatest good of each one of us and all the others…

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Notes:

*1* Excerpt from posting The Light, December 29, 2013, @ website http: // alicealexandrasofia.net / Folder Archive_2013, Page 10_December_2013:
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The Light 

…And God said: Let there be light, and there was light.
And God saw the light that it was good,
and God established the space in the depth of the midst of the light
and in the depth of the midst of the darkness…
{Genesis 1:3–4}

In the Holy Scriptures, it is said: και διεχωρισεν ο Θεος ανα μεσον του φωτος, και ανα μεσον του σκοτους {Genesis 1:4}. Traditional translations are “and God divided between the light and the darkness” (the Septuagint in English translation), and “God separated (or divided) the light from darkness” (English translations of the Bible – NRSV, NAB, NJB, REB, and Russian Canonical Edition). 
However, another translation*1* might be accepted, because, in the Greek text, there is no mentioning of division between the light (φωτος) and the darkness (σκοτους): the same words ανα μεσον του – in the depth of the midst of / up to the middle of – are used to describe God’s action (διεχωρισεν) with the light and then, with the darkness. Therefore, interpretation of the referred action as division between does not take into consideration that the words ανα μεσον του are used twice: they relate to both – to the light (φωτος) as well as to the darkness (σκοτους) {Genesis 1:4}.
Furthermore, the light and the darkness already are separate and different – otherwise it would not be said that God saw the light that it was good {Genesis 1:4}, while initially the γη – matter/earth – was unseen, imperceptible, and unprepared and the darkness was over the abyss/the inconceivable something/void {Η δε γη ην αορατος και ακατασκευαστος, καi σκοτος επανω της αβυσσονGenesis 1:2}*2*. The coming of the light already was the division among the unperceivable γη, the darkness over the void, and the new space filled with the light; therefore, traditional translation is constructed on the derivatives, which might not convey the actual meaning*1*.
Hence, the text in Genesis 1:4–10, indicates that God established something (διεχωρισεν) – the settings–enclosures–spaces–frameworks? – in the depth of the midst of the light; the same was done in the depth of the midst of the darkness, and then, in the depth of the midst of each one of two kinds of water {Genesis 1:7}. It was the division between the waters {εστω διαχωριζον ανα μεσον υδατος – Genesis 1:6}: one kind of water was above the firmament, another was under the firmament. By the water, the pre–Flood world was held, and by the water, when “the fountains of the abyss” were broken up and “the flood–gates of the Heaven” were opened (that is when the settings that sustained the life–space were destroyed), it perished during the Flood {Genesis 1; 6:18; 7:10–12, 17–24; 2 Peter 3:5–6}.
In summary, as the one could infer from the existing order of the world “under the Heaven” – the Earth {in: Genesis 1:9–10}, διεχωρισεν might indicate establishment of the place/singularity/settings/space, in which a work of God is accomplished; for instance, the living evolving world comes into the being.
In the post–Flood world, God became the στερεωμα*3* of man {Psalm 17(18):1–2} and the Word–God – Lord Jesus Christ, the Light of the world – came to bring life that is the light of man. The Word–God became the Light and the Life of His new creations*4*: a certain firstfruit of creations of God created through Lord Jesus Christ, began to evolve into the likeness of the Word–God – the immortal children of God who will serve God and will reign forever {Revelation 22:1–5}. Since, those who are the God’s Own, discern the Light and follow Him into the eternity; those who are not God’s Own, take the road into the darkness: the one’s reaction to the Light is the act of the ultimate judgment {John 3:16–21}…”
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Notes:
*1* In the logical block διεχωρισεν ο Θεος ανα μεσον του φωτος, και ανα μεσον του σκοτους,”
ανα  – conveys meanings: in; in depth; through, through all stretch; on, upon
μεσον – as a derivative of μετα – conveys meanings: in the midst, in between, in center, within.
In English translations of the Bible, διεχωρισεν is interpreted as a derivative of διεχω  – divide, pull/draw apart – which is a derivative of

διχαζω as separate on two parts; divide in half
διχηρης – dividing on half.

This interpretation might be responsible for establishment of dualism – belief in equality of the forces of the good and the evil, which contradicts the Christian teachings, yet which was accepted by many philosophers and theologians.
However, διεχωρισεν  in Genesis 1:4 might be a compound word, which is derived not of χωρις χωρισμος – division, separation, setting apart, departure as it is assumed in traditional interpretation of διεχωρισεν.
Διεχωρισεν  should be interpreted as a derivative
either of
δις – that becomes δι– in compound words and conveys the meaning of twice, double
εχω – to hold, carry, have within, possess, contain, sustain – derived of χωρα (χωρη) – space, place, position, settings, region, distance, country, land – and then, of  χωριζω    to place, to establish
or of
δια – through, throughout, over, upon, with, between, amongst
εχω –– χωρα –– χωριζω  – referred above.
In both cases, there is an indication of some holding–enclave–space–settings
either double or made twice (pertaining to the act of creation of the Earth, probably, as an emphatic expression confirmed with the words ανα μεσον του φωτος, και ανα μεσον του σκοτους – in both, in the light, and in the darkness)
or stretching through the depth in the midst of the light and the darkness.
So, according to the Genesis 1:4, there should be set some formation/breakdown/place/space/settings––container/holding space amongst (or established in) the depths (through all stretch of): in the midst of the light and in the midst of the darkness.
In the following text, Genesis 1:6–7, use of words διαχωριζον ανα μεσον υδατος – the division/space/formation that comes through all extent within water – illustrates and confirms the difference between the traditional translation of διεχωρισεν in Genesis 1:4 as division “between the light and the darkness,” and the interpretation of διεχωρισεν as establishment of this something, in which then {in Genesis 1:7–10}, as in the formation/space/settings under “the heaven,” the dry land appeared, and the living creatures of earth, water, and air came into the being.
In the contemporary terms, this something could be envisioned as the set of energy fields, which is formed for modification of the primary/dark matter (δε γη ην αορατος και ακατασκευαστος) and which sustains transformations of the creative energy of God into the certain forms of life: the living beings, creatures of the “earth” and the “water” within the settings – also derivatives of the creative energy of God – the planet Earth, which accommodates their existence.

*2* In Η δε γη ην αορατος και ακατασκευαστος, καi σκοτος επανω της αβυσσον Genesis 1:2:
αορατος – invisible, imperceptible, unseen, not known
ακατασκευαστος  – unprepared, without order; in the compound word  ακατασκευαστος, α– is a particle, the meanings of which include not– as negation, absence (e.g., of action),  κατα– is a particle that denotes completion, movement toward, σκευαστος is a derivative of σκευαζω – to make, to prepare, to establish, to put in order, to beautify; in the contemporary terms, ακατασκευαστος might convey the meaning of chaotic condition of the primary matter
επανω    to be above, higher, before; before than
αβυσσον  – something unmeasured, inconceivable, incomprehensible; the abyss, depth, void

*3* Concerning στερεωμα, or the firmament, see the following:
1/ Psalm 17(18):1–2: Αγαπησω Σε, Κυριε ισχυς μου. Κυριος Στερεωμα μου, και καταφυγη μου, και Ρυστης μου {I love Thee, O Lord, my strength. The Lord is my Firmament, and my refuge, and my Deliverer – Psalm 17(18):1–2}

2/  Folder 2012:
The Foreknowledge and The Plundered People – Page 2_February_2012,
The Future – Page 3_March_2012,
The Perception and The Trust – Page 4_April 2012
Note 4 to The Lessons of the Vineyard: Slavery and Freedom – Page 5_May–June_2012

3/ In general, στερεωμα is the framework or foundation for the set of energy fields made for transformations of the divine energy into a particular structured matter (e.g., water of the sea, dust of the land), the components of the world accommodating existence of mankind. Στερεωμα of this world is a particular manifestation of the universal order/arrangement/code that sustains/defines/creates divisions among the energy fields allotted for the cycles of energy transformations creating the perceivable structures of the matter at different levels of complexity. Life of the particular beings – inhabitants of the world composed with the structures of the matter – is possible only under the Heaven: within the στερεωμα – fixed arrangement of the energy fields with the limits, which humans measure with such parameters, for instance, as pressure, temperature, light, darkness, radiation, and so on (see the Pattern #11, Folder Systems, Page_2).
Στερεωμα of the human soul–heart–mind is the Word–God – the knowledge of God (His Law, His will, His commandments, His mercy, His Perfection and His Love – the Absolute Good) that is the everlasting life {John 17:3, 6}: this knowledge makes possible life by the Holy Spirit. See also posting The Abundant Good – Folder 2013, Page 2_March 2013.

*4* See Creation of Man – Folder 2013, Page 8_September_October_2013”
End of Excerpt.
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*2* Concerning Orphic doctrine, see Ancient Civilizations: Legacy overview – @ http: // systemslogic–by–alicesofia.net/, download from Page Library

*3* See Philosophy: Aristotle, Folder Heathen Philosophy @ http: // alicealexandrasofia.net/, and my book The Invincible Empire

*4* See posts @ my website http: // alicealexandrasofia.net :The Church Militants and my book The Invincible Empire

*5* See this blog, Post #8 L’Aquila Earthquake, Fukushima Nuclear Catastrophe, Trial of Science, and Survival of Mankind, with Notes 2, 5, and  References

*6* The story of Giordano Bruno illustrates the meaning of the limits that were imposed on the researchers by ignorance of the Inquisitors.
In 1600, Giordano Bruno was condemned by the Inquisition as the heretic and burned at the stake because he acknowledged the Copernicus model of the Solar System. The additional “crimes” of Giordano Bruno included suggestion of the possibility of existence of multiple worlds [in: Trager 211], which the Inquisition interpreted as the belief in existence of multiple deities, because Plato asserted that God created only one Universe, and Aristotle declared that “the prime motor” maintains uniformity of “continuous relation” toward things it moves; consequently, it should be one governing principle, therefore, one ruler [Plato Timaeus 31a–b; Aristotle Physics VIII.x.267b; Metaphysics XII.x].
The Aristotle’s apparent acknowledgment of existence of one deity – one “prime motor” – provided Thomas Aquinas (the main papal theologian whose doctrine – political theology – is the official theological doctrine of the papal church of Rome) with the fundamental reason for legalization of Aristotle’s physical philosophy as the means to re–interpret the Christian teachings. With the references to Aristotle and Plato, Aquinas made the conclusion that existence of another earth and many other worlds is not possible because there is the unity of order in all things and unity of world, as well as the unity of God Who governs all things [Summa Theologica I Q.47 a3]. The Aquinas’ affirmation of impossibility of existence of many worlds became the teaching of the papacy and the article of the Catholic faith; any assertion concerning existence of multiple worlds endangered the legitimacy of the Aquinas’ physical–theological constructions, which formed the foundation of political theology and automatically made Giordano Bruno guilty in heresy.
Yet, Thomas Aquinas overlooked or intentionally discarded the text, in which Aristotle mentions a prime mover “whether singular or plural” and “all unmoved movers.” In particular, Aristotle asserts that the “prime motor”– the source of the everlasting movement within the Universe – is whether singular or plural, in a uniform and constant relation to all things which are in motion, while itself is not divisible, without parts, and not dimensional [Aristotle Physics VIII.vi. 258b; VIII.x.267b].
Although Aquinas and other theologians applied the primitive language of Aristotle’s physics toward apparently monotheistic theological studies, the words “plural” and “unmoved movers” evidently describe a multi–deity arrangement. This polytheistic statement makes all physical–theological speculations based on exclusive status of only one “prime mover” pointless and eliminates any reason to admit the Aristotle’s doctrine as applicable for any philosophical speculations dealing with monotheistic theology.
Furthermore, the initial argument contains a definition of the “prime motor” as “whether singular or plural” [Aristotle Physics VIII.vi. 258b] that immediately points out the inconsistency of the whole construction. For example, if each “prime motor” is not dimensional and if this prime motor is in a uniform and constant relation to all things, how Aristotle could determine, is it one motor or many? If there is many “prime motors,” there is no uniform and constant relation to all things, because, if there are many prime motors, each motor should have its own meaning of uniform and constant relation, which originates the own world inaccessible or indiscernible with the things, which have another type of uniform and constant relation. Besides, if the “prime motor” keeps a uniform and constant relation to all moving things, there is no any discernible change within such Universe, and movement itself does not have any sense or meaning.
In general, Aristotle’s categories of things in the constant rest and in neither in motion nor in rest within the constantly moving and changing Universe are the irrational constructions, and the Aristotelian notion of the “prime motor” illustrates absurdity of application of physics for explanation and elaboration of philosophical concept. Obviously, the Aristotle’s speculations are intended to re–iterate the Plato’s assertion that “the Maker” made only one Universe [Plato Timaeus 31 a–b] with the only comprehensible for Aristotle language – the language of natural science (in this particular case – physics). Probably, Aristotle searched for some kind of material proof of his philosophy: according to his own assertion, none of theoretical speculations should be accepted without material proof by senses. Yet, his speculations disclose incompatibility of the levels of consideration, therefore, irrationality of inconsistent reasoning.
When Aristotle became the recognized co–author of the papal official doctrine –  Aristotle–Aquinas’ political theology (referred also as “neo–Aristotelian system” [Holmes 7], “Christian Aristotelianism” [McKeon 149], and the bold renewal of the Catholicism by “wonderful expression” of the Catholic faith with the categories of Aristotle [Léger 23]), the assumption “whether singular or plural” was intentionally disregarded, and Giordano Bruno paid with his life for his assertion of existence of many worlds, which probably could be controlled by many deities as the Aristotle’s physical “theology” suggests.
In summary,
a/ with the language of physics Aristotle reiterated the Plato’s statement that God created only one Universe, yet inserted in it prime mover “whether singular or plural” and “all unmoved movers”  (the fourth century B.C.)
b/ disregarding Aristotle’s idea of existence of many deities – “prime motors,” Thomas Aquinas made Aristotle’s physical–theological speculation the article of the Catholic faith (the thirteenth century)
c/ the Inquisition sentenced the Giordano Bruno’s ideas (the seventeenth century), which contradicted the physical construction of Plato [e.g., Plato Timaeus 31a–b] and Aristotle accepted as articles of the Catholic faith, to be the heresy inconsistent with the Scriptures.
In 1601, after execution of Giordano Bruno, Pierre Charron (1541–1603) reminded: many ancient philosophers believed in existence of many worlds, because would God made only this visible Universe, His power would be limited [Charron 234].
Indeed, nobody can prove that Omnipotent Almighty God–Creator of the discernible by the human mind Universe is not able to create and has not created multitudes of other universes governed by other laws; consequently, any theologian with the reasonable mind would not accept the image of the powerless or restricted by one world god, which was created by narrow–mindedness of the ancient heathen physicist and materialist and elaborated by his followers. The essence of the world of mankind is one – universal for this world – law of transformation of energy (the law, which manifests itself through “the unity of order” or uniformity of “continuous relation”). The human mind and human senses are designed to exist within the world governed with this law: they, along with their instruments and methods of research, are not able to discern, perceive, and describe directly anything created and functioning according to another law, which controls another form of life.
However, a human being has been created after the likeness of Omnipotent Almighty God and does not have limits of cognition. It means that although at the present stage of development of natural sciences, the mind still is not able to overstep the terms of own existence, to cognize other laws, and to discern their derivatives – other universes, nobody can prove that the human mind either would not be able to do it tomorrow or does not invent the means to discern the worlds, which it cannot perceive today.
 At the time of Giordano Bruno, it was almost impossible to free the mind from the very fabric of the contradictory methods of reasoning based on the Plato–Aristotle’s fantasies. The primitive physical–astronomical constructions and logic of Aristotle the heathen provided the only acceptable framework for the medieval speculations, which were presented as “Christian theology.” This – Aristotelian – framework intertwined the nature of God and the order of the discernible by human senses Universe into the whole, thus, restricted the possibilities of God by the matter and human imagination. The very application of the Aristotelian framework toward theological studies and assertion of limitation of the power of God were the actual heresies, while the Inquisition exterminated as the heretics those who opposed the heathen misconceptions elevated to the rank of papal faith.
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References:

 [1]  The Septuagint with Apocrypha: Greek and English. English translation by Sir Lancelot Charles Lee Brenton. Great Britain, London: Samuel Bagster & Sons, Ltd., 1851.

[2]  The Complete Parallel Bible. New York and Oxford, U.K.:  Oxford University Press, 1993.

[3]  The Bible. New York:  American Bible Society, 1970.

[4]  The Bible: Books of the Holy Scriptures – Old and New Testament. Canonical. Published by the Holy Synod, Moscow, 1914. (Russian)
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Web:

[5] Milky Way Galaxy Formed From the Inside Out? By Kimberly Ruble
http: // guardianlv.com /2014/01/ milky-way-galaxy-formed-from-the-inside-out/

[6] The Milky Way galaxy is INSIDE OUT. We KNEW it, mutter astroboffins. By Brid-Aine Parnell,
http:// www. theregister.co.uk /2014/01/21/ milky_way_inside_out/

[7] The Gaia-ESO Survey: radial metallicity gradients and age-metallicity relation of stars in the Milky Way disk. M. Bergemann et al.
http:// arxiv.org/abs/ 1401.4437

[8] Astronomers find evidence Milky Way grew 'inside out'. Credit: University of Cambridge.
http:// www. upi.com/Science_News/ 2014/01/20/Astronomers-find-evidence-Milky-Way-grew-inside-out/ UPI-20551390262227/
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Books:

Aristotle. The Metaphysics. With an English Translation by G. Cyril Armstrong. Cambridge, Massachusetts:  Harvard UP; London:  William Heinemann, 1935. 2 vols.
Aristotle. The Physics. With an English translation by Philip H. Wicksteed and Francis M. Cornford. Cambridge, Massachusetts:  Harvard UP; London:  William Heinemann, 1968. 2 vols.
Charron, Pierre.  "Concerning Wisdom."  Renaissance Philosophy. Volume II: The Transalpine Thinkers.  Ed., trans., and  introduced by  Herman Shapiro  and  Arturo B. Fallico.  New York:  Random House,  1969.  214–248.
Holmes, Arthur F. Christianity and Philosophy. Chicago:  Inter–Varsity Press, 1963.
Léger, Paul–Émile (Cardinal Léger). "Introduction." Renewal of Religious Thought:  Proceedings of the Congress in the Theology of the Renewal of the Church. Centenary of Canada, 1867–1967. v. 1. Ed. L.K. Shook. Introduction by Paul–Émile Cardinal Léger. 2 vols. Montreal:  Palm Publishers, 1968. 19–33.
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